Government Brazil is a federal republic as established by its current Constitution, promulgated on October The federal states have their own governments, with their own fields of activities and duties.
The Constitution of , regulates the election of the chief of government and of the chief of state, the president, that is elected through a direct way for a four-year renewable period. In the brazilian citizens voted in favour of keeping the republican and presidentialist system of government the chief of government and of state are the same individual The bicameral brazilian National Congress consists of a Federal Senate with 81 members three representatives for each state and three for the Federal District , elected for a eight-year period and of a Chamber of Deputies with members elected for a four-year period.
The deputies are assigned to each state according to its the population members elected for a period of four years. The election is carried out through a secret vote and it is compulsory for the literate citizens over Each chamber has permanent or temporary Commissions, integrated proportionally by the parliamentary parties or blocs. The Commissions discuss and vote bills, held audiences, evaluate programmes and regional or national projects of development.
The Federal Supreme Court, consisting of 11 judges, meets in Brasilia.
The federal courts are located on each state and on the Federal District. Other judiciary organs are the federal electoral courts, created to guarantee the electoral process and the labour courts. The federal judges are appointed for life.
The justice in other states is administered on specific courts. The 26 states and the Federal District have their own organs, legislative and executive. The executive organs are headed by the governors, democratically elected. Geography Brazil is the fifth largest country of the World. It occupies almost half of the South America Continent and borders with all its countries, except Chile and Ecuador. The largest part of the country has a low rate of inhabitants; although, in some of the regions in which a scant population density has traditionally existed, such as in the Amazons zone, are experimenting a very fast growth, together with the trees felling and the exhaustion of its resources.
Brazil can be divided in four geographical regions. The long and narrow Atlantic coastline is characterised by the coastal mountain ranges, which are enlarged between the Grande Do Soul and Bahia rivers; although, as of the Bahia north zone, the land becomes flatter. The high large lands, known as Brazilian Marsh or main tableland, which are enlarged through the largest interior south part of the Amazons Basin, are splashed by some little mountain range crossing by several rivers.
Two big hollows exist: the Paraguay Basin characterised by open wood, low wood and brushes; and the dense Amazon Basin jungle, to the southeast. The Amazon River is the longest river of the World, with 6. The richness and variety of the Brazilian fauna is amazing, locating the country at the top of the World in number of primates species, amphibious and plants, also it is the third in variety of birds and the fourth in reptiles and butterflies species. Although many of these species are in extinction risk due to the continuously devastation of the tropical jungle, to the desertification that affects the northeast, to the furtive hunting that suffers the marshy zone and the contamination of the coast zone.
The Brazilian climate varies according to the latitude and altitude of the zone. From the dryness of the interior, to the tropical climate of the Amazons and the eastern coast regions. Overall, it can be said that it is mainly tropical. It is a humid country, with weather changes, especially in the south. Brazilian seasons are opposite to the European and American ones, except in the north region. In all the country, variations in the dusting rate, temperature and humidity are produced, but only in the south of Brazil these changes are extreme among seasons. The high lands, cooler and less humid, are prone to summer storms.
The country is the biggest coffee producer in the World and owns great mineral resources; the exploitation of many of them was intensified during the decade. From the middle of XX century, an important process of industrialisation was begun, which led the country to became the tenth worldwide economic power. A mainly agricultural nation as Brazil was, in and decades, experienced a fast industrial growth , until decade achieved a diversify modern economy.
Big amounts of iron and coal were extracted and the production of chemicals products, steel and engine vehicles substantially grew. Among autochthonous and widely cultivated fruits, there are pineapple, figs custard apple, mangoes, bananas, guavas, grapes and oranges. Brazil is among the main worlwide producers of sugar cane, that is used to produce refined sugar and alcohol for fuel ;castor; cacao;wheat; and oranges.
Other important crops are: soy, tobacco, potato, cotton, rice, wheat, tapioca and bananas. Also, porks, fowl sing, sheep,goats, horses, donkeys, mules and oxen are raised.
Among the most valuable products of the Brazilian woods many of them are stood up: aleurite, rubber, cera carnauba, algarrobe fibre, medicinal leaves, vegetable oils, resins, nuts and timber for construction and furniture. The lumber industry was rapidly developed during the and decades, at the same time the woods were cut down to build settlements.
On the other hand, the fishing industry; although, at the beginning hindered because of the share capital shortage , grocery stores and preserving industries grew up considerably from the decade. The mineral resources are wide diamonds, iron, coal, petroleum, gold ,tin , but the share capital shortage and the unsuitable infrastructure of transport stopped their development until the decade. The gold fever in the Amazonian jungle , unchanging from , has made of Brazil one of the largest worldwide producers.
The iron mineral deposits of the country which are located in Itabira and other areas, are considered among the richest of the World.
The tin rich deposits have made of Brazil one of the leaders producers of this metal. Also, it is a great exporter of quartz crystals, monazite and beryllium. Magnesium, diamonds, chromium, zirconium, raw petroleum , natural gas, silver, bauxite and mica are extracted in big quantities. The valuable reserve of magnesite, graphite, titanium, copper, zinc, mercury and platinum are not exploited in big scale.
Industries manufacture a wide range of articles. Big quantities of goods such as processed food , iron and steel, cement, knitting, tailoring , engine vehicles , chemical products, paper, ships and electrical equipment are produced. Culture The culture of the modern Brazil has been shaped from a rich past of ethnic traditions. The first Portuguese settlers took many customs and words from the native American population. The carnival is a popular celebration in Brazil; the carnival of Rio has international fame because of its grandeur, colourfulness and spectacular of this profane celebration.
Also, it has a variety of musical styles , some of them worldwide known , the samba has been made internationally popular in the decade.
That folk dances, originated in Africa, have been rapidly spreadered out and as the time goes by, they took place to bossa-nova. On the other hand , the states keep libraries and public museums in their capitals. The Geographical and Historical Brazilian Institute also owns tons of filling and, just as unique and weird books. However, around twenty million of catholic also practise some kind of ritual worship of African origin.
The majority of native Americans profess traditional religions. The separation of the State from the Church is complete and formal. The official Language of Brazil is Portuguese.
Also, Spanish, English, French, and more than de native dialects are spoken. Especially in the cities of the south, many Brazilian speak German and Italian. It is located in the heart of South America, divided by Paraguay river in two regions: Eastern and Western. It shares with Bolivia, in America, the condition of not having maritime coastlines. It borders Argentina to the south and southwest, to the northwest with Brazil and to the northeast with Bolivia.
On August 15, , the National flag was created. The colours at the top narrow red, wide white , in the middle and at the bottom blue were the same that were used by the troops sent by Paraguay to River Plate during the British invasions. On November 25, , the Extraordinary Congress stipulated that the National Flag of Paraguay was designed in three equal horizontal stripes of red, white and blue colours. History Paraguay declared its independence, overthrowing local Spanish authorities, on the daybarake of May 15, That was the only victory without bloodshed in the American historic emancipation.
However, between to period, the country lived several wars such as the War of the Triple Alliance and the War with Bolivia, among others, that were weakening socially and economically the country. After the independence, from to , Paraguay was governed by Dr.
The main objective of the government of Dr. France represented the consolidation of the independence and the defence of the territorial integrity of Paraguay; the right of the free navigation in the rivers, the statement of the peace and the calmness of the country , isolating it to protect it from the reigning anarchy of the neighbour states.
As a part of this policy, the dictator forbade the citizens and foreigners to go out the country. To emigrate, a especial permission was needed.